Το διχασμένο αφηγηματικό υποκείμενο στα πρωτοπρόσωπα έργα της Ελίζαμπεθ Γκάσκελ

 
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PhD thesis (EN)

2009 (EN)
The split subject of narration in Elizabeth Gaskell's first-person fiction
Το διχασμένο αφηγηματικό υποκείμενο στα πρωτοπρόσωπα έργα της Ελίζαμπεθ Γκάσκελ

Κουστινούδη, Αννα Στ.

Η διατριβή μου εξετάζει μία σειρά από πρωτοπρόσωπα πεζογραφήματα της Βικτοριανής συγγραφέως Ελίζαμπεθ Γκάσκελ, δηλ. το Cranford (1853) το Cousin Phillis (1863), το 'Six Weeks at Heppenheim" (1862), το 'The Poor Clare' (1856) και το 'The Grey Woman' (1861), μέσα από το μετα-δομικό πρίσμα της Λακανικής Ψυχανάλυσης και της φεμινιστικής αφηγηματολογίας. Πιο συγκεκριμένα, αφού πρώτα επιχειρεί να θέσει τα εν λόγω πεζογραφήματα στο σύγχρονό τους ιστορικο-πολιτικό, οικονομικό και πολιτισμικό περικείμενο, εξερευνά και αναλύει την προβληματική του Βικτοριανού υποκειμένου κατά την αφηγηματική πράξη στη διττή του υπόσταση ως αφηγητή/τριας και ως κειμενικού χαρακτήρα. Υποστηρίζει, δε, ότι και στις δύο του εκδοχές, το Βικτοριανό αφηγηματικό υποκείμενο αναδύεται διχασμένο, κατακερματισμένο και αναξιόπιστο, κάτι που απορρέει από το γεγονός ότι δομείται, κατασκευάζεται και εγγράφεται ως κοινωνική, φιλική και φυλετική ταυτότητα μέσα από τις συμβάσεις και τις αντιφάσεις του γλωσσικού/συμβολικού συστήματος και της εκάστοτε ιδεολογίας που αυτό παράγει και προάγει. Τέλος, επισημαίνεται, ότι παρόλο που τα συγκεκριμένα κείμενα παράγονται και καταναλώνονται σε μια εποχή η οποία διέπεται από τις αρχές του εμπειρισμού και της Καρτεσιανής φιλοσοφίας-αρχές οι οποίες προάγουν την πίστη σε ένα ανεξάρτητο, παντοδύναμο λογικό/διαφωτισμένο και σταθερό ανθρώπινο υποκείμενο - οι αφηγηματικές τεχνικές που δομούνται και υιοθετούνται από τη συγγραφέα υποσκάπτουν και ακυρώνουμ τέτοιου είδους αρχές και βεβαιότητες
My dissertation approaches a number of Elizabeth Gaskell's first-person works, namely, Cranford, (1853) Cousin Phillis, (1863) 'Six Weeks at Heppenheim', (1862) 'The Poor Clare' (1856) and 'The Grey Woman', (1861) through a post-modern perspective employing such theoretical frameworks as psychoanalytic theory, narratology and gender theory. It attempts to explore the problematics of Victorian subjectivity from a post-modern, to be more precise, from a Lacanian perspective. All along, I assume that the narrative subjectivity which emerges from Gaskell's texts, both as a narrating and narrated one, is split, divided and fluid rather than concrete, autonomous and whole, despite clinging to illusions of autonomy and fantasies of wholeness. This is the result of the narrating subject's misrecognition of its own subjectivity which occurs as part of the continuation or re-enactment of the prototypical encounter between the 'I and its mirror image (Which, again, is one of misrecognition and imaginary wholeness) as experienced in infancy during what Jacques Lacan has theorized as the Mirror Stage. I see it emerging, moreover, as a process in the form of a series of subject positions, imaginary identifications and psychic investments which are discursively, and hence ideologically produced by the symbolic system, rather than as an essence or stable ontological entity or substance. Although over the last two decades Elizabeth Gaskell has been established as one of the major, female, authorial figures as representative of what has come to be known as classic realism of nineteenth-century, she has seldom (if at all) been read as a writer of self-conscious fiction in the ways that some of her more acclaimed cohorts (as, for instance, Charlotte Brontλ and George Eliot) have and this is what this thesis will partly attempt to do. Despite their realistic frame of reference and mode of writing, which is generally informed by a belief in a world of consistent subjects as the origin of meaning, knowledge and action, the result of the dominant ideology of their time which is the post-Enlightment epoch of empiricism and industrial capitalism, Gaskell's first-person texts subtly, but firmly subvert such certainties in ways that point to the instability of the speaking subject itself. Hence, her narrators' splitting ambivalence is to be traced - as a branch of contemporary criticism has consistently attempted to do as regards her better known industrial fiction - even in the most realistically rendered of her narratives, thus giving credit to post-modern interpretations of subject formation. According to them, subjectivity is discursively constructed and dispersed across the range of discourses (cultural, political and economic) in which the 'concrete' individual participates. Moreover, this project is intent upon embracing the view that since the narrating subject is constructed in the realm of the symbolic order, which is also the realm of discourse, mediation and ideology, then it is also discursively constructed in ideology itself, which in a seemingly 'natural' way interpellates it also as a gendered, class-conscious and race-conscious subject, thus forcing it, through subtle coercion, to assume a predetermined set of seemingly fixed positions in a reality which is but a series of inter-subjective positions, repetitive role playing and masquerading. Narration, as the mutual interaction of both the narrator's desire to narrate and the narratee's desire for narrative, has a key role to play, of course, in the subject's 'meaningful' being, since it seems to fulfill its primordial desire for a return to origins and past traumas or as Freud would have it a 'return of the repressed' via a 'compulsion to repeat', which I see as the ultimate goal of all first-person narratives in general and Gaskell's own in particular, that of domesticating otherness and/or coming to terms with trauma by re-telling. It is in this respect that my project also argues for first-person narration as symptomatic of the desire to reconstruct the past in the 'now' of narration, a model analogous to the one we encounter in the analytic situation

PhD Thesis / Διδακτορική Διατριβή
info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis

Διχασμένο αφηγηματικό υποκείμενο, αφήγηση κοινότητας
'Lacanian reading', 'Minor Stage', Psychoanalytic stage
Το στάδιο του καθρέφτη, Ψυχαναλυτική προσέγγιση
'Αφηγηματικό εγώ', Ναρκισσισμός, Λακανική ανάγνωση
'Victorian subjectivity', 'psychic investment', 'psychic split'
'Ηδονοβλεπτικό Εγώ', Γοτθικό υποκείμενο, Βικτοριανό υποκείμενο
Ψυχική προσκόλληση, ψυχικό χάσμα, αντανάκλαση
Επιθετική στάση, Ελίζαμπεθ Γκάσκελ, πρωτοπρόσωπη αφήγηση
'Minor image', 'aggressive stance', 'Gothic narrative', 'first-person narration'
'Narrating I', 'Narrated I', Narcicissism
Split subject, Communal narrative, Scopohilic instinct
'Subject of narration', 'Gothic I'

Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης (EL)
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (EN)

2009
2009-06-21T21:00:00Z


Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης, Φιλοσοφική Σχολή, Τμήμα Αγγλικής Γλώσσας και Φιλολογίας

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info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess



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