Clofent, Juan; Digestive Diseases Section.
Internal Medicine Department.
Hospital de Sagunto.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated to an increased risk of colorectal cancer,which is primarily related to long-standing chronic inflammation. Recognized risk factorsare the duration and extent of the disease, severe endoscopic and histological inflammation,primary sclerosing cholangitis, family history of colorectal cancer and in some studies youngage at diagnosis. Recent population-based studies have shown that the risk is lower than previouslydescribed or even similar to that of the general population, and this could be justified bymethodological aspects (hospital-based vs. population-based studies) or by a true decrease inthe risk related to a better control of the disease, the use of drugs with chemoprotective effector the spread of endoscopic surveillance in high-risk patients. Apart from colorectal cancer,patients with IBD are prone to other intestinal neoplasms (lymphoma, small bowel adenocarcinoma,pouch neoplasia and perianal neoplasia). In this article, the magnitude of the risk ofintestinal cancer, the risk factors, the natural history of dysplasia and the recommendationsof screening and surveillance in IBD are reviewed.Keywords Inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, risk factors, dysplasia, surveillanceAnn Gastroenterol 2012; 25 (3): 193-200