Recent advances on the management of patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Leontiadis, Grigorios I.
Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The mainstays of therapy include prompt resuscitation, early risk stratification, and appropriate access to endoscopy. Patients with high-risk endoscopic findings should receive endoscopic hemostasis with a modality of established efficacy. The pillar of post-endoscopic therapy is acid-suppression via proton pump inhibitors (PPI), although the optimal dose and route of administration are still unclear. Post-discharge management of patients with peptic ulcers includes standard oral PPI treatment and eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. The risk of recurrent bleeding should be carefully considered and appropriate gastroprotection should be offered when non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-platelet agents, and/or anticoagulation need to be used. This review seeks to survey new evidence in the management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding that has emerged in the past 3 years and put it into context with recommendations from recent practice guidelines.Keywords Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, risk stratification, proton pumpinhibitors, endoscopic hemostasis