This item is provided by the institution :

Repository :
Annals of Gastroenterology
see the original item page
in the repository's web site and access all digital files if the item*

Report (EN)

2007 (EN)
Hepatic hydrothorax (EN)

Tan, Chew
Karavalaki, Maria
Karagiannidis, A.
Koulaouzidis, A.

Hepatic hydrothorax is an infrequent complication of cirrhosis and symptoms are mainly related to shortness of breath, cough and chest discomfort. A number of different pathogenetic mechanisms have been postulated for the development of pleural effusions in cirrhotic patients. Spontaneous infection of the pleural fluid, defined as spontaneous bacterial empyema, is a serious complication characterized by high mortality rate. Diagnosis is based on high clinical suspicion and initial therapy of hepatic hydrothorax is aimed at suppressing the production of ascites with administration of diuretics and restriction of sodium intake. When these fail (10% of cases) and thoracentesis is required every 2-3 weeks, the hydrothorax is defined as refractory and alternative more aggressive therapeutic strategies, such as thoracoscopic repair of diaphragmatic defects with pleural sclerosis, transjugular percutaneous intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt placement (TIPSS) and liver transplantation, must be considered. Key words: Hepatic Hydrothorax, spontaneous bacterial empyema, hepatic cirrhosis, TIPSS (EN)




Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology (EN)

Annals of Gastroenterology; Volume 19, No 3 (2006) (EN)

*Institutions are responsible for keeping their URLs functional (digital file, item page in repository site)