Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA) in Gastroenterology
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is recognized as a useful diagnostic
modality in detecting lesions in the pancreas, gastrointestinal
tract, periluminal and pancreaticobiliary
lymph nodes, the spleen, as well as in outlining their locoregional
extent. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA)
has signaled the beginning of a new era for the capabilities
of EUS, because it enables the biological characterization
of the lesion, thereby rendering patient management more
efficient. This review focuses on the vast variety of EUSFNA
applications (according to different anatomical sites),
their advantages and contribution to the diagnosis of deepseated
lesions (such as those of the pancreas, biliary tract
and lymph nodes), as well as on their drawbacks and limitations.
Technical issues such as training difficulties and
future developments are also discussed.
Key words: EUS, EUS-FNA, pancreatic cancer, pancreatic
neuroendocrine tumors, pancreatic cysts, IPMT,
autoimmune pancreatitis, foregut cysts, mediastinal masses,
mediastinal lymphadenopathy, stromal tumors, GIST,
liver lesions, adrenal masses, ascites, EUS-FNA complications.