Ear-nose-throat manifestations in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) refer to a group of chronic inflammatory disorders involving the gastrointestinal tract and are typically divided into two major disorders: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). CD is characterized by noncontiguous chronic inflammation, often transmural
with noncaseating granuloma formation. It can involve any portion of the alimentary tract and CD inflammation has often been described in the nose, mouth, larynx and esophagus in addition to the more common small bowel and colon sites. UC differs from CD in that it is characterized by contiguous chronic inflammation without transmural involvement, but extraintestinal manifestations of UC have also been described. During the last few years many authors have reported serious complications of IBD manifesting in the earnose-throat (ENT) and influencing disease morbidity. The
present article reviews the most important ENT manifestations in IBD patients.