Licit substance abuse during pregnancy and its effect on the foetus

 
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2001 (EN)
Licit substance abuse during pregnancy and its effect on the foetus (EN)

Πλέσσας, Σταύρος, Τ. (EL)
Λυκερίδου - Αβραμιώτη, Κατερίνα (EL)
Δελτσίδου, Άννα (EL)

Σχολή Επαγγελμάτων Υγείας και Πρόνοιας. Τμήμα Μαιευτικής (EL)

Subject of this literature review is the impact of licit psychoactive substance abuse during pregnancy and their long-term consequences on the foetus. These psychoactive substances can be grouped into two categories: (a) licit substances, including alcohol, tobacco, caffeine and inhalants and (b) illicit drugs, including cannabis, opioids, cocaine, hallucinogens, amphetamines and hypnotic or anxiolytic drugs. Because of its importance in understanding the different ways, a substance may an effect on the foetus, a short description was given about how foetal substance exposure relates to maternal substance concentration, the placental permeability and the mechanisms of placental transfer and the role of the foetus in determining foetal concentrations. It follows the description of the characteristics of each one of the abused licit substances during pregnancy and their adverse effects on the foetus. Epidemiological data of several surveys, since 1988, were discussed. Prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and with mental retardation and other neurodevelopmental disorders of the infant, which are the most devastating results of maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been associated with a lower birth weight and a delay in postnatal growth of the neonates. A few of the children born to solvent abusing mothers have craniofacial abnormalities like those seen in children with the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Finally, several studies in humans have shown that caffeine is safe when ingested in customary amounts during pregnancy. In conclusion, these social and recreational substances, singly or together, may cause defects on the foetus and the neonate, with those effects extending into adulthood. The use of licit substances during pregnancy remains a major health problem, which demands specific measures to be confronted. (EN)

journalArticle

Addiction (EN)
Εθισμός (EN)
Εμβρυϊκό αλκοολικό σύνδρομο, Σύνδρομο ΕΑΣ (EN)
Dependence (EN)
Κατάχρηση ουσιών (EN)
Εξάρτηση (EN)
Στερητικό σύνδρομο (EN)
Substance abuse (EN)
Withdrawal syndrome (EN)
Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS syndrome (EN)

ΤΕΙ Αθήνας (EL)
Technological Educational Institute of Athens (EN)

Epitheorese Klinikes Farmakologias kai Farmakokinetikes (EN)

English

2001


Πλέσσα, Ελένη Σ. (EL)



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