Application and fate of cyromazine in a closed-cycle hydroponic cultivation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

 
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2007 (EN)
Application and fate of cyromazine in a closed-cycle hydroponic cultivation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (EN)

Patakioutas, G. (EN)

Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Σχολή Θετικών Επιστημών. Τμήμα Χημείας (EL)
Patakioutas, G. (EN)

The fate of cyromazine applied via the nutrient solution (20, 40, and 60 mg of active ingredient per plant) in a closed-cycle soilless cultivation of bean with zero discharge of effluents was traced in both the recycled drainage solution and the plant tissues for 99 days. The insecticide was applied once, 15 days after planting (16 days prior to the first harvest). In addition to cyromazine, the residues of melamine, its metabolite, in the drainage solution and plant tissues were also regularly determined during the 99 days. The two higher application doses induced toxicity symptoms on the leaves of the bean plant. The maximum cyromazine levels were measured 8 days after application in the drainage solution (17-46 mg l(-1)), 16 days in the roots (1.1-2.4 mg kg(-1) fresh weight [f. wt.]) and the vegetative shoot (4.5-9.5 mg kg(-1) f. wt.), and 24 days after application in the pods (2.6-4.1 mg kg(-1) f. wt.). However, the cyromazine residues in pods were clearly below the maximum acceptable levels for bean. The half-life of cyromazine in the drainage solution ranged from 16 to 19 days for the three doses. The melamine residues in the drainage solution and in the roots reached a concentration peak 16 days after cyromazine application, whereas in the vegetative shoot and the pods they were constantly increasing over the 99 days after application. Nevertheless, the melamine residues were constantly much lower than those of cyromazine, although on the last sampling day (99) they tended toward convergence. Cyromazine proved to be highly persistent, as indicated by the remarkably high residues measured in both the drainage solution and the plant tissues, even 99 days after application. Nevertheless, the application of cyromazine via the nutrient solution to beans grown in closed-cycle hydroponic systems at doses not exceeding 20 mg per plant seems to be safe with respect to both phytotoxicity and residue levels in the edible pods. (EN)

pesticide (EN)

Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων (EL)
University of Ioannina (EN)

J Agric Food Chem (EN)

English

2007

<Go to ISI>://000251142000027



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