Βέλτιστος ημερήσιος ενεργειακός προγραμματισμός μονάδων ηλεκτροπαραγωγής σε διασυνδεδεμένα συστήματα
In an attempt to contribute constructively in the scientific field of understanding materials, this report presents documented experimental results regarding the examination of chemical reactivity of binary and ternary zirconium (IV) systems with a variety of organic acids challenging the metal-ion coordination sphere in an aquatic environment. At the beginning of this report a literature review of the methods and techniques selected, the reagents nature, and the high tendency of zirconium to undergo hydrolysis is included in order to render lucid the need to define the specific parameters that favor the synthesis of novel compounds at the expense of the hydroxides formation. Experiments involving conventional and hydrothermal synthesis methods, as well as slow evaporation and liquid-liquid diffusion crystallization techniques, have been carried out under defined pH and molecular stoichiometric conditions and have led to synthesis and isolation of novel organic/inorganic hybrid crystalline materials of zirconium (IV) with ahydroxycarboxylic acids citric and malic, that are pH-specific and bear distinct structural features, composition and three-dimensional architecture. The latter properties emerged as a result of physicochemical characterization of the materials through a variety of analytical techniques including FT-IR spectroscopy, X-Ray crystallography, thermogravimetric and elemental analysis and 13C, 19F, 1H solid state NMR spectroscopy. The physicochemical data beyond supporting a fingerprint identity for all species synthesized and isolated, have pointed out specific factors that influence intermolecular as well as intramolecular interactions and finally the structural speciation of the newly formed species. Summed according to their importance these factors include: the dependence of the produced materials on the starting zirconium reagent, the different mobility the halide ions bound to zirconium exhibit consistent to their electronegativity and how this affects the coordination sphere and the abundance of ligand molecules in it, the importance of the base counter-cations (namely ammonium, guanidinium and 1,10-phenanthrolinium) not only in adjusting the pH, but also in the configuration of the three-dimensional crystalline lattice by neutralizing the metal-ion-ligand anionic species and their contribution in a hydrogen bond network that forming within the lattice is holding all the adjacent chemical species in close and stable proximity. The study made concludes that the diverse compounds produced consist an important step in the binary and ternary zirconium systems structural speciation and given the fervent reactivity and known biological roles of all involving reagents, suggests possible functions of the synthesis products and ideas to be further explored concerning organometallic and polymeric synthesis.
Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης, Πολυτεχνική Σχολή, Τμήμα Χημικών Μηχανικών
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