UV filters: From sunscreens to human body and the environment

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UV filters: From sunscreens to human body and the environment (EN)

Giokas, D. L. (EN)

Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Σχολή Θετικών Επιστημών. Τμήμα Χημείας (EL)
Giokas, D. L. (EN)

Recognition of the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin has triggered development of organic chemicals (commonly referred as UV filters) that can absorb UV radiation and attenuate the negative effects of sunlight exposure. Depending on the properties and the intended degree of protection, a wide array of combinations is being marketed as delivering protection against most kinds of UV-induced skin damage. However, some UV filters have dermatological implications, so maximum applicable concentrations have been established. To monitor to what extent commercial products comply with the mandatory limits, several analytical methods have been used for their determination in cosmetics and related products. Further research on the efficacy of UV filters applied on the skin surface has brought to light a gradual attenuation of their UV-protective capacity that cannot solely be attributed to photo-induced decomposition. Investigations carried out to elucidate the reasons underlying this behaviour concluded that UV filters may be systematically absorbed through the skin surface or even released during bathing and washing activities. These observations gave rise to numerous studies aiming to investigate the magnitude and effects of skin penetration as well as accumulation in the water environment. Because of the need for more in-depth investigation into the behavior of UV filters, the initial demand for product certification has been extended to include reliable analytical methods to determine these substances at low concentration levels and in complex matrices (e.g., biological and environmental samples). Until now, most of the available methods, although designed to cover a large variety of substances, quantify them at only high-mg/L levels; however, recently, researchers have paid special attention to developing more sensitive procedures able to determine these substances in biological tissues and fluids or environmental samples at ng/L levels without matrix interferences. This article gives a comprehensive outline of the accumulated knowledge on UV-filter determination in biological and environmental samples and encourages further research in this new, challenging field of analytical, health and environmental science. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (EN)

by-product (EN)

Trac-Trends in Analytical Chemistry (EN)



Elsevier (EN)

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