Η παιδεία στην περιοχή της Μητρόπολης Δημητριάδος κατά τους χρόνους 1800-1881 και η συμβολή της τοπικής Εκκλησίας

 
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PhD thesis (EN)

2012 (EN)
The education of the area of the Metropolis of Demetrias during the period 1800-1881 and the contribution of the local church
Η παιδεία στην περιοχή της Μητρόπολης Δημητριάδος κατά τους χρόνους 1800-1881 και η συμβολή της τοπικής Εκκλησίας

Τάτσιος, Στέργιος

This work refers to the education (schools, teachers, books etc.) in Demetrias region (prefecture) during the period 1800-1881, also with references to the period 1775-1800, after the treaty of Kiouchuk-Kainartzi at 1774, which gave a new impetus to the economic and also to the educational development of Pilion and of Agia regions. The work also refers to the assistance of the Orthodox clergy for the development and for the spreading of the education.The privileges the High Gate (the Turkish government and authority) granted to Pilion caused the creation of its communal system and its strong economic and educational development. The new social class of the small scale industrialists, tradesmen and seamen showed keen interest for the establishment of the first schools in Demetrias region. In the middle of the 18th century and later, particularly in the beginning of the 19th century a lot of schools were founded and a lot of capable and qualified teachers were appeared.They often travelled from village to village of Pilion to teach the greek language, which was a step forward from the language taught in the so-called “common” schools, where the students were taught writing, reading and arithmetic using church books such as the Octoechos, the Book of Psalms (Psaltirion) and the Triodion. The duration of these studies was about 5 years but this was frequently interrupted by the departure of the teachers or of the students, who were obliged to leave school to go and help their parents in working the land.At the same time, the new ideas of the Enlightment were gradually introduced to the Demetrias region. Based on the ancient greek culture and education and on the teaching of the new sciences, new schools were founded and new cultured teachers were invited to teach the new courses. The sponsors of these efforts were distinguished emigrants, such as John (Ioannis) Pringos from Zagora, or famous intellectuals and scholars, such as A. Ghazis, Gr. Constantas and Dan.Phillipidis from Milies. The schools during this period were well equipped with teaching aids, libraries, maps, class texts and manuals etc., all provided by wealthy merchants and ship-owners, who travelled to the “cultured” Europe and dreamed of a National Renaissance through the education in Demetrias region.In this effort, notable emigrants played the leading part, such as the above mentioned J. Pringos from Amsterdam / Holland and the former Ecumenical Patriarch Kallinikos the 3rd, who planned the upgrade of the Greek High School of Zagora to a tertiary-level school according to the European model, with which they were familiar, but also harmonized with the classical Hellenic tradition and with the spirit of Orthodoxy. On the other hand, the same feat was accomplished by A. Ghazis and Gr.Constantas, who had lived in the centers of the European Enlightment and who were among the most notable writers of their age. In 1814, they established the famous School of Milies which they endowned with books, maps and teaching aids for physics and chemistry from Vienna. Constantas first and then Ghazis tought in this school, the later coming from Vienna to prepare the War of Independence in 1821 in Pilion. During the years the school was open (1815-1821) many young people not only from Pilion, but also from Asia Minor and Syria came to study there. The School closed in the spring of 1821, when the revolution of 1821 broke out in Pilion and failed.At the same period (1780-1820) in Agia region there was also an economic and educational development, due to the trade between Agia and Europe, but this development was stopped when the Revolution of 1821 broke out in Agia and its communities region.It is notable that the aid for education did not stop even after the calm that followed 1821, as a new civil and cultural renaissance was manifested in Demetrias region and especially in Pilion. This big educational explosion took place also to Volos, which began –after 1833- to grow as a vibrant town, with many inhabitants of Pilion and also from the interior of Thessalia and Epirus moving there and creating a new town. The fast developed city attracted also the interest of many European countries which bounded Consulates, although such representation offices had been functioning for sometime as commercial offices. After the middle of the 19th century the citizens especially from Pilion who became wealthy in Egypt, contributed in many ways to the field of the education and of the general culture in the development of the region of Demetrias.In the 19th Century, with the creation of the free state of Greece in 1830, the people of Demetrias- especially during the period when Dorotheos Scholarios was the Metropolitan bishop (Metropolite) of Demetrias (1858-1870) - made many improvements to their educational system, establishing many different kinds of schools, “allilodidaktika”, “hellinika”, “parthenagogia” and “Gymnasia”. Not only were local teachers given posts in these schools, but teachers from all over the free state of Greece were employed in Demetrias. New educational programmes were adopted and put into practice as far as ambitions would allow it. This fact was definitely connected with that spreading of this educational activity. It is a notable fact that a major role which was observed in Demetrias region between 1775-1881 in this movement of the educational and spiritual regeneration was played by the Greek Orthodox Church. Undoubtedly the overwhelming majority of the educators through out that period –especially till the Revolution of 1821- were clergymen.

Παιδεία
Μητρόπολη Δημητριάδος
Τοπική εκκλησία

Εθνικό Κέντρο Τεκμηρίωσης (ΕΚΤ) (EL)
National Documentation Centre (EKT) (EN)

Greek

2012


National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών (ΕΚΠΑ)



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